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What is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)?

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol at the application layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite. The protocol is used for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems which put it at the core of data communication across the World Wide Web (WWW). This means that when a user goes to a (distributed or collaborative information systems) website or loads any form of interactive media (hypermedia information systems), it is this protocol which transfers the information back and forth. Hypertext is structured text which has the feature of logical links (hyperlinks) between endpoints. This means that HTTP is literally the protocol to handle the transfer of hypertext.

What is a blockchain?

A blockchain is a decentralized digital ledger which is shared between every node on the network. For a device to become a node on a blockchain, a user must acquire that blockchain's token on the device so that it can be recognized as such and then be a part of the digital ledger. This ledger stores all of the data on each node across the system in such a way that it is all immutable; that is, it can never be modified or deleted. This process occurs simultaneously on all the machines on the network by having them solve a mathematical cryptographic puzzle which is heavy on the machine's computational power and can take a significant time to complete. This is the process which is called mining and a machine which is used for this is called a miner. Miners are typically in competition with each other to completely mine the transaction first as its only that miner who is rewarded with more tokens for completing the task. This is what has led to the cost of computer components costing so much as the demand for better hardware for miners has increased the price. One of the most popular of blockchains right now is the Bitcoin blockchain which functions as a cryptocurrency with a public digital ledger and was one of the very first to do this.

Why you should consider Using VPN to hide your Identity

Did you know that hackers, governments, snoopers or attackers can identify you through the IP address you use? By default, the IP address you use is public and interested parties or snoopers can intercept your information very easily. The good news is that you can always count on VPN to hide your identity on the Internet or access content that is geographically blocked in your location known as Internet Censorship.

What is an ISP?

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization which provides internet services to users. These organizations can be commercial, non-profit, private, or even community-owned. One of the key services they provide is the ability for their users to access the Internet. Laptops, computers, mobile devices, and any smart device that is capable of connecting to the Internet will require an ISP to connect to the Internet. To accomplish this, the ISP will provide the user with their own IP Address, which may be static or dynamic, to use as identification while surfing the internet. The user would then browse a website from their web browser by typing in its website name; let's say, iplocation.net. This website name (domain name) would be translated into its own IP Address which uniquely identifies the website via DNS. This IP Address is then sent to the user's local router which is then forwarded to the user's ISP and then from there; to iplocation's ISP via ISP Switching centers like Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAE). Other services an ISP may provide include Internet transit, web hosting, Usenet service, and co-location services. Internet transit is a service provided to allow a smaller ISP to connect to the Internet and have their network traffic "transit" over a network. Web Hosting is provided to users who require a means to keep their website active and available but lack the equipment to do it themselves. Usenet was one of the first means of communication on the Internet that was designed back in the 70s and is no longer used. Finally, co-location is the service of providing server space and equipment for rental to hosting customers.

What is Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)?

In the world of technology which is constantly growing and improving comes with increased risks and security vulnerabilities that those with malicious intent seek to take advantage. Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is one such method which is primarily used in web-applications to allow the attacker to inject client-side scripts onto web pages. This type of attack is called code injection. Unsuspecting users then view these web pages which then give the attacker a means of bypassing authorization for access controls. One such access control is the same-origin policy which follows that a script running on a web page is allowed to run on the same web page only if they are both of the same origin (URI scheme, hostname, and port number). Typically, this would prevent a malicious script from one web page to go to another web page and access sensitive data and information; however, XSS bypasses this by taking advantage of security flaws in web applications' servers or plug-in systems. Once the attacker has successfully taken advantage of one of these vulnerabilities and compromised the site, unsuspecting victims have basically granted the script the same level of permissions they would have given to the site, such as access to cookies. This would then allow the attacker to view any sensitive information a user might be inputting onto the site ranging from passwords to credit card information. The website's page content, session cookies, and browser-maintained information would all be accessible by the attacker at this point.

What is smart homes?

Due to the advancement in network technology, a trend in “Smart Homes” has developed allowing users to control each device remotely in their home. In this article, we will define what a Smart Home is, what technologies are used, and how this can be advantageous to homeowners.

What is the private IP address?

The private IP addresses are the reserved IP address blocks that cannot be routed through the internet. Since private IP addresses are only intended to be used in private networks, they are not globally unique. The private IP address must be unique within its network (usually LAN) so that there is no conflict between two computers within its network. Due to scarce nature of IPv4 Address (i.e. approximately 4 billion IP addresses), IANA reserved private IP address blocks so that they can be used by any organization without registering them with IANA. The private IP address block can be used in homes, small businesses, or even medium and large enterprises to create their own network. Computing devices with a private IP address cannot be directly accessed from the Internet unless NAT (Network Address Translation) is used. The advanced network planning techniques have also enabled network planners to use same private IP address within different private networks thus allowing them to save valuable IP address space. A private address may also be referred to as a local IP address. It also enables to hide the identity of the users over the Internet.

What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity deals with the protection of computer systems, networks, and data from cyber theft and damage to hardware, software and information. Cybersecurity is equally important for companies as well as individuals.

What is the DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a decentralized naming schema of resolving domain (host) names into numerical IP Addresses. The IP Addresses are assigned to various computing devices and services on the Internet but because remembering a series of numbers is more difficult for people, it's easier to remember them by their corresponding domain names and have the DNS translate it into the relevant IP address. In this way, the DNS is equivalent to a telephone directory where you would look up a person's telephone number by their name. This is accomplished by having the DNS map domain names to the aforementioned Internet resources by giving authoritative name servers (Top Level Domain name servers) for each domain. This then allows network administrators to create their own sub-domains on their domain and have them connect to other name servers; thus, allowing for a decentralized, fault-tolerant, and distributed database. As this is the DNS main purpose, the handling of the domain name hierarchy namespace and IP Address translations, it is an integral part of the Internet communication at the Application Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite.