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What is WAP?

WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol. This is a well-known and commonly used standardized protocol which defines how wireless communication can take place between mobile devices and a wireless network. This could include devices such as radio transceivers, cell phones, world wide web, newsgroup, instant messaging and any device that can be used for Internet access. Devices which are based on WAP can interoperate as technology advancement happens over time.[..]

What are different File Sharing protocols?

File sharing is something which is part of our daily activities. This is also commonly referred to as P2P or Peer-to-Peer sharing. This could be sharing files between two nodes in a network or between a client and a server or between two nodes not within the same network. Any multi-user environment will require a file sharing mechanism.[..]

What is net neutrality?

In today's digital world net neutrality has become increasingly significant. As an Internet user, something that all of us should be aware of. Net neutrality is a fundamental law that several governments impose on Internet Service Providers (ISP). This ensures all data irrespective of the content is treated equally. With this, the Internet service provider will not be able to charge differently to its users based on content, platform, application or website being accessed.[..]

How to secure your home network?

Our home router has become an internal part of global communication footmark when the use of the Internet has developed to contain home-based telework, entertainment, personal financial management, social network, school work, and businesses. Router facilitates the broadened connection. Almost all these devices are pre-configured in the company that those made and are plug and play for immediate use. After installing a router at home, people frequently connect directly to the world wide web without conducting any additional configuration. People might be reluctant to enhance safeguard configurations because those configurations may seem bit difficult or people are unwilling to spend more time with these advanced configuration settings.[..]

What determines the speed of your internet?

There is really no one specific thing that you can say determines the speed of your internet connection because there are several players and components responsible to deliver internet to your PC or laptop. Internet speed is not just determined by the speed of your computer’s processor as many people think.[..]

What is ARP Spoofing?

The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Spoofing attack, also called ARP Cache Poisoning or ARP Poison Routing, is a technique by which an attacker sends spoofed ARP messages onto a Local Area Network (LAN). It is used to allow the attacker access to incoming internet traffic on a LAN by having their Media Access Control (MAC) Address be linked to the Internet Protocol (IP) Address of another host (usually, the default gateway). Through this, they’re able to receive incoming traffic intended for that IP Address which allows them to intercept the data, modify traffic, or even stop all traffic on the network. Because of this, the technique is often used to open up the possibility of other attacks such as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, a man in the middle attack, and a session hijacking attack. The success of the attack depends heavily on the attacker gaining direct success to the targeted local network segment and it can only be used on networks which use ARP.[..]

What is a Smart Contract?

A smart contract is a computer protocol which was designed with the goal of digitally facilitating, verifying, or enforcing the negotiation of a contract. Through the protocol, credible transactions can be successfully processed without the use of a third party and are trackable and immutable; that is, they cannot be modified or removed after being successfully completed. Their entire purpose for being designed is to provide a higher level of security unattainable by traditional contractual law and to reduce other transaction costs associated with the traditional process.[..]

What is a Network?

A network is a connection between one or more nodes (devices) regardless of distance and size. They are established for the sake of communication of data between the nodes. To accomplish this, the nodes will utilize circuit switching, message switching, or packet switching to send the data through from one signal to another. They are the basis for telephone networks, computer networks, and the Internet as a whole.[..]

What is User Datagram Protocol (UDP)?

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite in the transport layer. The protocol’s primary purpose is for the use of sending messages (datagrams) between two endpoints across the Internet without the need of a pre-existing data path from prior communication between the endpoints. This is what is referred to as connectionless communication and is ideal in situations where error-checking and error-correction are not needed between two endpoints. In these scenarios, the datagrams can be sent between the two endpoints faster than using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as the overhead generated from error-checking and error-correction is no longer a factor. This makes UDP very popular and a very optimal solution in these types of situations as it would be more preferred than its counterparts.[..]

How to Protect Yourself on Public Wi-Fi?

Public Wi-Fi is a lifesaver if you're trying to save on data usage or you need the Internet access, but sometimes the consequences of using public Wi-Fi can outweigh its convenience. Whether you're in a coffee shop, public library, university or an airport, all free Wi-Fi hotspots are equally susceptible to hackers and other data thieves. To mitigate these risks, users must take preventative measures to ensure that they are using public Wi-Fi safely.[..]

What is Network Address Translation (NAT)?

Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process of remapping one IP Address space into another by modifying the network addressing information in IP header packets. This process occurs while the packets are in transit across a traffic routing device and was originally used as a shortcut instead of having every individual host readdressed whenever a network was moved. Since then, however, especially thanks to the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses, NAT has become a popular and essential tool for conserving global address space. This is because even just one Internet-routable IP Address of a NAT gateway can be used for an entire private network.[..]

What is a firewall?

Firewall is one of best security mechanism that monitor and control the network traffic incoming and outgoing, based on predefined security rules. The firewall is always established between trusted internal and some other outside network (can be internet), assuming that outside network unsecured and untrusted. There are mainly two kinds of firewalls, host-based firewalls and network firewalls. Some of firewall provide additional services like DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) or VPN (Virtual Private Network) services for the internal network. There are Three generations of firewalls named First, Second and Third. First generation firewalls were based on packet filtering. Looking at the network address (IP) and the port of the packet, it determined whether packet is to block or allowed. If a particular packet or series of packets did not match for packet filtering rules, those were simply dropped. In 1988 first packet filter firewall was developed from Digital Equipment Firewalls. If packets do not match the rules, the filter will reject or drop the packet. These filtering works on the first three layers (physical layer, data link layer and network layer) of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model.[..]

What is SSH?

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic protocol with the focus for secure data communication over a network. It's most common application is for remote login by users onto other systems; usually servers. The protocol was designed to be the successor and replacement to Telnet and other similar unsecured remote shell protocols as they all sent information in plain text which made them privy to attacks. As this information was user login credentials, the demand for the encryption of this data was something deeply sought after to ensure security. While the protocol does achieve this function, recent incidents involving the files leaked by Edward Snowden has revealed that the National Security Agency (NSA) is actually capable of sometimes decrypting the protocol.[..]

What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol used in the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite used for the transferring of files across a network between a server and a client. The protocol was built from the ground up with the client-server model in mind and utilizes different connections for data and control between the two. Users can authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol which is usually in the form of a username and password or they can connect to the server anonymously if it is configured to allow it. Transmissions of a user's login credentials can be secured by Transport Layer Security / Secure Sockets Layer (TLS/SSL); which can also encrypt the content of transmissions. Should this not be the case, the information is transmitted unencrypted which leaves it susceptible to a sniffing attack. In some scenarios, SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) might be used but it should be noted that the protocol is technologically different than TLS/SSL.[..]

What is InterPlanetary File System?

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol which seeks to replace the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) with the goal of having a truly decentralized Internet by changing how data is communicated across the World Wide Web (WWW). This is accomplished by a decentralized network where all devices on the network have hypermedia content stored and content-addressed for sharing. This process makes it similar to the World Wide Web (WWW), however, it is very different as it creates another network which works alongside a file system. The protocol was realized in 2014 by using the Bitcoin blockchain protocol and network as its framework which allowed it to store immutable data, handle duplicated files, and obtain addressing information across the network. This led to achieving faster speeds, more reliable performance, and better security than HTTP and HTTPS although it is not popular nor commonplace.[..]

What is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)?

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol at the application layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite. The protocol is used for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems which put it at the core of data communication across the World Wide Web (WWW). This means that when a user goes to a (distributed or collaborative information systems) website or loads any form of interactive media (hypermedia information systems), it is this protocol which transfers the information back and forth. Hypertext is structured text which has the feature of logical links (hyperlinks) between endpoints. This means that HTTP is literally the protocol to handle the transfer of hypertext.[..]

What is an ISP?

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization which provides internet services to users. These organizations can be commercial, non-profit, private, or even community-owned. One of the key services they provide is the ability for their users to access the Internet. Laptops, computers, mobile devices, and any smart device that is capable of connecting to the Internet will require an ISP to connect to the Internet. To accomplish this, the ISP will provide the user with their own IP Address, which may be static or dynamic, to use as identification while surfing the internet. The user would then browse a website from their web browser by typing in its website name; let's say, iplocation.net. This website name (domain name) would be translated into its own IP Address which uniquely identifies the website via DNS. This IP Address is then sent to the user's local router which is then forwarded to the user's ISP and then from there; to iplocation's ISP via ISP Switching centers like Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAE). Other services an ISP may provide include Internet transit, web hosting, Usenet service, and co-location services. Internet transit is a service provided to allow a smaller ISP to connect to the Internet and have their network traffic "transit" over a network. Web Hosting is provided to users who require a means to keep their website active and available but lack the equipment to do it themselves. Usenet was one of the first means of communication on the Internet that was designed back in the 70s and is no longer used. Finally, co-location is the service of providing server space and equipment for rental to hosting customers.[..]

What is the DNS?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a decentralized naming schema of resolving domain (host) names into numerical IP Addresses. The IP Addresses are assigned to various computing devices and services on the Internet but because remembering a series of numbers is more difficult for people, it's easier to remember them by their corresponding domain names and have the DNS translate it into the relevant IP address. In this way, the DNS is equivalent to a telephone directory where you would look up a person's telephone number by their name. This is accomplished by having the DNS map domain names to the aforementioned Internet resources by giving authoritative name servers (Top Level Domain name servers) for each domain. This then allows network administrators to create their own sub-domains on their domain and have them connect to other name servers; thus, allowing for a decentralized, fault-tolerant, and distributed database. As this is the DNS main purpose, the handling of the domain name hierarchy namespace and IP Address translations, it is an integral part of the Internet communication at the Application Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite.[..]

What is an Intranet?

The term intranet is a comprised of two words: "Intra" means internal and the "net" represents the network. The Intranet, therefore, can be defined as the internal network. It is a private network with access limited to the authorized users only. The Intranet can be as simple as a private website or it can be as big as a private organizational infrastructure, accessed by only the authorized users. The intranet may not necessarily be connected to the Internet but they usually do. In typical intranet architecture, there are specific computers in a defined parameter where each computer in the intranet plays a specific role to provide common tools and features to every computer connected to the intranet. There are vendors that provide the intranet portal software like Share Point, Igloo and Huddle.[..]

What is Internet?

Internet can be defined as the worldwide network where machines like computers, servers, and smart devices are connected together for communication and data exchange purposes. In the layman's terminology, the Internet is the network of networks interconnecting computing devices located throughout the world. These networks use some communication protocols to link the network devices with each other.[..]

What is Wi-Fi?

A Wi-Fi (also known as WiFi) is a wireless network technology which allows WiFi enabled devices to communicate with each other, and also share the Internet without wired connectivity. Wi-Fi is based on 802.11 IEEE network standard which uses radio frequency signals to transmit data. The distance supported by Wi-Fi network depends on the type of Wi-Fi radio and antenna in use, and whether the environment is open or enclosed within walls and bricks. As the distance between the Wireless Access Point (WAP) and mobile device move farther away, the radio signal weakens and the transmission data rate slows down until the signal is not strong enough to be usable. The performance of Wi-Fi network also varies depending on the type of standard employed by the Wi-Fi devices, namely 802.11 (a), (b), (g), (n) and (ac).[..]

Why replace your router with a Wifi Mesh System?

Do you have a dead zone in your home with no wireless signal? You're not alone. With a proliferation of laptops, smartphones, tablets and smart TVs; we use more Internet than ever, and your router alone may not be able to cover your entire home. You may even have a range extender or an access point which complements your home network, but having multiple networks within your home may cause your smart devices to hop on and off a separate network causing delays and interruptions.[..]

What is Ethernet?

Ethernet is the most widely used local area network (LAN) technology, that defines wiring and signaling standards for the physical layer of TCP/IP. Ethernet was originally standardized as IEEE 802.3 with a data transmission rate of 10 Mb/s. Newer versions of Ethernet were introduced lately to offer higher data rates. Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet support data rates of 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps) respectively. An Ethernet LAN may use coaxial cable (10Base2), unshielded twisted pair wiring (10BaseT, 100BaseT and 1000BaseT), or fiber optic cable. Ethernet devices compete for access to the network using a protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). With the prosperity of Internet, Wi-Fi, the wireless LAN technology standardized by IEEE 802.11, is used in hybrid with Ethernet LAN to offer portability.[..]

Find IP addresses of a private network

You have a private or public network with servers and workstations that are assigned static and dynamic IP addresses (either private or public IPs). You assigned them the static IP addresses due to NAT (Network Address Translation) or for public access, and dynamic IP addresses via the DHCP. Even if you kept a good record of those assigned IPs, there are times when you want to find all IP addresses of networked devices. The following procedure may be used to determine IP addresses of networked devices that are connected to your network.[..]

RJ45 Cable Wiring: T-568-B Straight-through & Crossover RJ-45 cabling

RJ-45 conductor data cable contains 4 pairs of wires each consists of a solid colored wire and a strip of the same color. There are two wiring standards for RJ-45 wiring: T-568A and T-568B. Although there are 4 pairs of wires, 10BaseT/100BaseT Ethernet uses only 2 pairs: Orange and Green. The other two colors (blue and brown) may be used for a second Ethernet line or for phone connections. The two wiring standards are used to create a cross-over cable (T-568A on one end, and T-568B on the other end), or a straight-through cable (T-568B or T-568A on both ends).

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Traffic Shaping, Bandwidth Shaping, Packet Shaping with Linux tc htb

Denial of service attacks are major nuisance for web hosts, and as a web host you'll have to take every measure to protect your resources from DoS attacks. Our APF, BFD, DDoS and RootKit article describes Linux utilities available to protect from DDoS attack, and also explains installation procedures. This article supplements above article by providing means to control traffic (bandwidth shaping) with Linux "tc" command so that no single machine can waste the entire network bandwidth.

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What is IP Spoofing and how to avoid it?

IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to machines, whereby an attacker illicitly impersonates another machine by manipulating IP packets. IP Spoofing involves modifying the packet header with a forged (spoofed) source IP address, a checksum, and the order value. Internet is a packet switched network, which causes the packets leaving one machine may be arriving at the destination machine in different order. The receiving machine resembles the message based on the order value embedded in the IP header. IP spoofing involves solving the algorithm that is used to select the order sent values, and to modify them correctly.

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What is DHCP?

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network protocol which functions at the application layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. A server which uses DHCP will be able to dynamically assign IP Addresses and other network configuration parameters to devices on the network; thus, allowing communication to a second network. The protocol can be implemented of networks of any sizes, ranging from small home area networks (HANs) to large campus area networks (CANs) and even the networks used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs).

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What is a TCP/IP?

TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is the suite of two protocols, TCP and IP, used to interconnect network devices on the Internet. The TCP performs the handshake between the network devices to establish a socket. The socket remains open during the communication. The source TCP converts the data into packets and sends to the destination TCP. The TCP performs acknowledgment for the successful delivery of the packets. If a packet drops on the way, the source TCP resends the packet. The IP layer is responsible for sending and receiving the data to the correct destination. The TCP/IP stack is comprised of the following layers.

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What is a MAC Address?

MAC, Media Access Control, address is a globally unique identifier assigned to network devices, and therefore it is often referred to as hardware or physical address. MAC addresses are 6-byte (48-bits) in length, and are written in MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS format. The first 3-bytes are ID number of the manufacturer, which is assigned by an Internet standards body. The second 3-bytes are serial number assigned by the manufacturer.

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What is a Subnet Mask?

address and the host address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses (<network><host>). Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address (<network><subnet><host>) if additional subnetwork is needed. Use the Subnet Calculator to retrieve subnetwork information from IP address and Subnet Mask. It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming a bitwise AND operation on the netmask.[..]