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What is IPv6 Address?

Internet Protocol Version 6 (or IPv6) is a successor of IPv4 Address standard developed by IETF, which is designed to solve IPv4 address exhaustion problem. IPv4 uses a 32-bit numbering scheme to represent an IP address, which has an address space of 232 or 4.3 billion. IPv6, on the other hand, uses 128-bit numbering scheme (2128) which has big enough address space for many decades to come. IPv6 is intended to replace the IPv4, but the introduction of CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) allocation scheme in 1993 within the IPv4 prolonged lifespan of IPv4 Addresses. With an anticipation of smartphones, tablets, smart appliances and other electronic devices joining Internet every day, IPv4 address space will eventually exhaust. As of May 2014 per Google Statistics, 96% of Internet traffic is IPv4 and only 4% is represented by IPv6. IPv4 and IPv6 are not interoperable by design, so the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 require "transition mechanism" such as Stateless IP/ICMP Translation, Transport Relay, 6rd and other IPv6 transition mechanisms to make them interoperable.[..]

What is a VPN?

A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a network technology which extends private network (such as LAN) over a public network such as the Internet. A VPN allows a computer (or a network) to be connected securely as if they are physically wired together. Corporations use VPN to allow remote workers to connect securely to their private network. A VPN is also used to interconnect remote offices with a head office as if they are physically connected. [..]

Find IP addresses of a private network

You have a private or public network with servers and workstations that are assigned static and dynamic IP addresses (either private or public IPs). You assigned them the static IP addresses due to NAT (Network Address Translation) or for public access, and dynamic IP addresses via the DHCP. Even if you kept a good record of those assigned IPs, there are times when you want to find all IP addresses of networked devices. The following procedure may be used to determine IP addresses of networked devices that are connected to your network.[..]

RJ45 Cable Wiring: T-568-B Straight-through & Crossover RJ-45 cabling

RJ-45 conductor data cable contains 4 pairs of wires each consists of a solid colored wire and a strip of the same color. There are two wiring standards for RJ-45 wiring: T-568A and T-568B. Although there are 4 pairs of wires, 10BaseT/100BaseT Ethernet uses only 2 pairs: Orange and Green. The other two colors (blue and brown) may be used for a second Ethernet line or for phone connections. The two wiring standards are used to create a cross-over cable (T-568A on one end, and T-568B on the other end), or a straight-through cable (T-568B or T-568A on both ends).

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Traffic Shaping, Bandwidth Shaping, Packet Shaping with Linux tc htb

Denial of service attacks are major nuisance for web hosts, and as a web host you'll have to take every measure to protect your resources from DoS attacks. Our APF, BFD, DDoS and RootKit article describes Linux utilities available to protect from DDoS attack, and also explains installation procedures. This article supplements above article by providing means to control traffic (bandwidth shaping) with Linux "tc" command so that no single machine can waste the entire network bandwidth.

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Denial of Service (DoS) and DDoS Attacks

DoS attack, denial-of-service attack, is an explicit attempt to make a computer resource unavailable by either injecting a computer virus or flooding the network with useless traffic. In simple words, it is similar to thousands of people trying to enter a room from a single entrance, ultimately causing havoc. This not only disturbs the normal operations of the network but also results in poor performance and system breakdown due to overwhelming requests. A large-scale DDoS attack (ranges up to 400 GBps) can affect the internet connectivity of an entire geographical region. There are two types of DoS attacks: computer attack and network attack. Common forms of denial of services attacks are:

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What is IP Spoofing and how to avoid it?

IP Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to machines, whereby an attacker illicitly impersonates another machine by manipulating IP packets. IP Spoofing involves modifying the packet header with a forged (spoofed) source IP address, a checksum, and the order value. Internet is a packet switched network, which causes the packets leaving one machine may be arriving at the destination machine in different order. The receiving machine resembles the message based on the order value embedded in the IP header. IP spoofing involves solving the algorithm that is used to select the order sent values, and to modify them correctly.

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