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What is a TCP/IP?

TCP/IP, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is the suite of two protocols, TCP and IP, used to interconnect network devices on the Internet. The TCP performs the handshake between the network devices to establish a socket. The socket remains open during the communication. The source TCP converts the data into packets and sends to the destination TCP. The TCP performs acknowledgment for the successful delivery of the packets. If a packet drops on the way, the source TCP resends the packet. The IP layer is responsible for sending and receiving the data to the correct destination. The TCP/IP stack is comprised of the following layers.

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What is a MAC Address?

MAC, Media Access Control, address is a globally unique identifier assigned to network devices, and therefore it is often referred to as hardware or physical address. MAC addresses are 6-byte (48-bits) in length, and are written in MM:MM:MM:SS:SS:SS format. The first 3-bytes are ID number of the manufacturer, which is assigned by an Internet standards body. The second 3-bytes are serial number assigned by the manufacturer.

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What is a Subnet Mask?

address and the host address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses (<network><host>). Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address (<network><subnet><host>) if additional subnetwork is needed. Use the Subnet Calculator to retrieve subnetwork information from IP address and Subnet Mask. It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming a bitwise AND operation on the netmask.[..]

What is an IP Address?

The Internet Protocol Address (or IP Address) is a unique address that computing devices such as personal computers, tablets, and smartphones use to identify itself and communicate with other devices in the IP network. Any device connected to the IP network must have a unique IP address within the network. An IP address is analogous to a street address or telephone number in that it is used to uniquely identify an entity.[..]

Email Delivery Problems Explained

With ever growing number of spam emails flooding the Internet, more and more ISPs tighten their email filtering system to prevent spams delivered to their clients. It is virtually impossible to block even 50% of the spams arriving in a mail server, and there will always be false positives (legitimate emails filtered as spams). In an effort to reduce spam emails, the Federal Trade Commision (FTC) passed the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, but the Internet spam traffic is still on the rise.

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