What is a Network?

A network is a connection between one or more nodes (devices) regardless of distance and size. They are established for the sake of communication of data between the nodes. To accomplish this, the nodes will utilize circuit switching, message switching, or packet switching to send the data through from one signal to another. They are the basis for telephone networks, computer networks, and the Internet as a whole.

What is User Datagram Protocol (UDP)?

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite in the transport layer. The protocol’s primary purpose is for the use of sending messages (datagrams) between two endpoints across the Internet without the need of a pre-existing data path from prior communication between the endpoints. This is what is referred to as connectionless communication and is ideal in situations where error-checking and error-correction are not needed between two endpoints. In these scenarios, the datagrams can be sent between the two endpoints faster than using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) as the overhead generated from error-checking and error-correction is no longer a factor. This makes UDP very popular and a very optimal solution in these types of situations as it would be more preferred than its counterparts.

How to Protect Yourself on Public Wi-Fi?

Public Wi-Fi is a lifesaver if you're trying to save on data usage or you need the Internet access, but sometimes the consequences of using public Wi-Fi can outweigh its convenience. Whether you're in a coffee shop, public library, university or an airport, all free Wi-Fi hotspots are equally susceptible to hackers and other data thieves. To mitigate these risks, users must take preventative measures to ensure that they are using public Wi-Fi safely.

What is Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)?

A Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is a type of attack whereby a website with malicious intent will send a request to a web application that a user is already verified for. In other words, the request is sent from a malicious website the user visits to another website which the attacker believes the user is already authenticated for. These requests are routed to the target site which the user is validated for via their browser because their browser is authenticated against the site. This means that the vulnerability for this type of attack does not lie with the website which issued the CSRF nor the user, but with the web application. This will allow the attacker to access the functionality of the web application via the victim’s already authenticated browser. It is a type of attack that is frequently used against web applications which deal with social media, in-browser email clients, online banking, and web interfaces for network devices.

What is Carriage Return, Line Feed Injection (CRLF Injection)?

Carriage Return and Line Feed (CRLF) are special character elements typically embedded in Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) headers and some other software code. The inclusion of these character elements is to denote an End of Line (EOL) marker. These character elements are actually very common as many protocols of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite, such as HTTP, MIME, and NNTP, use them to discretely split the text into elements. As such, CRLF injection is when an attacker can inject a sequence of CRLF into one of these protocols or software applications; such as an HTTP stream. This is one of the attacks most common uses and as such, has the alternative names of HTTP Response Splitting and Neutralization of CRLF Sequences in HTTP Headers.

What is buffer overflow?

Firstly, we must define what a buffer is. A buffer is an allocated section of memory which can hold anything from a string of characters to an array of integers. That being the case, a buffer overflow (or overrun) is what happens a buffer with a fixed-length receives more data than what it can handle. In this case, the extra data has to be stored somewhere and spills over into an adjacent space in memory which can corrupt or overwrite the data stored there. These overflows usually result in a system crash; however, they also create opportunities for an attacker to run some malicious code or manipulate coding errors. The success of these attacks are very high as most programming languages, such as C, C++, and Fortran are vulnerable to these types of attacks.

Cyberbullying by the Numbers

Cyberbullying has been around for decades, but it isn’t until today that it has been catapulted as one of society's biggest social issues. With technology’s unprecedented growth comes the increased integration of these innovations into our everyday lives. More and more people are being sucked into the void of social media, regardless of race, age, or social standing.

What are the most secure encryption algorithms?

Encryption of data has become an integral part of data security. Encryption can protect sensitive information and also provide secure network connections. Encryption generates a ciphertext from your original data, which can be decrypted by the intended recipient. This makes brute force attacks and Man-in-the-middle attack almost impossible.

How to prevent online tracking?

Have you ever used a website that requires login information? Or been online shopping and realized that advertisements are suspiciously familiar with what you’ve been browsing at? Have you saved your financial information on your browser when making a purchase online? Online tracking allows you to save these details, enjoy (or despise) targeted advertising, and capture your login details on your favorite browser. While online tracking may provide some beneficial features, tracking can also introduce unprecedented security concerns you might not be aware of.