What is SSH?

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic protocol with the focus for secure data communication over a network. It's most common application is for remote login by users onto other systems; usually servers. The protocol was designed to be the successor and replacement to Telnet and other similar unsecured remote shell protocols as they all sent information in plain text which made them privy to attacks. As this information was user login credentials, the demand for the encryption of this data was something deeply sought after to ensure security. While the protocol does achieve this function, recent incidents involving the files leaked by Edward Snowden has revealed that the National Security Agency (NSA) is actually capable of sometimes decrypting the protocol.

What is TLS/SSL?

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) are two cryptographic protocols used for providing secure communication over a network. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) prohibited the use of SSL which led the way for TLS to succeed it. The protocols have several variations and iterations used in web browsing, email, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). Websites, in particular, are known for using TLS for securing communications between their servers and web browsers. This is accomplished by TLS providing privacy and integrity to data between two communicating nodes on a network.

What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a protocol used in the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite used for the transferring of files across a network between a server and a client. The protocol was built from the ground up with the client-server model in mind and utilizes different connections for data and control between the two. Users can authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol which is usually in the form of a username and password or they can connect to the server anonymously if it is configured to allow it. Transmissions of a user's login credentials can be secured by Transport Layer Security / Secure Sockets Layer (TLS/SSL); which can also encrypt the content of transmissions. Should this not be the case, the information is transmitted unencrypted which leaves it susceptible to a sniffing attack. In some scenarios, SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) might be used but it should be noted that the protocol is technologically different than TLS/SSL.

What is InterPlanetary File System?

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a protocol which seeks to replace the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) with the goal of having a truly decentralized Internet by changing how data is communicated across the World Wide Web (WWW). This is accomplished by a decentralized network where all devices on the network have hypermedia content stored and content-addressed for sharing. This process makes it similar to the World Wide Web (WWW), however, it is very different as it creates another network which works alongside a file system. The protocol was realized in 2014 by using the Bitcoin blockchain protocol and network as its framework which allowed it to store immutable data, handle duplicated files, and obtain addressing information across the network. This led to achieving faster speeds, more reliable performance, and better security than HTTP and HTTPS although it is not popular nor commonplace.

What is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)?

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol at the application layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) Suite. The protocol is used for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems which put it at the core of data communication across the World Wide Web (WWW). This means that when a user goes to a (distributed or collaborative information systems) website or loads any form of interactive media (hypermedia information systems), it is this protocol which transfers the information back and forth. Hypertext is structured text which has the feature of logical links (hyperlinks) between endpoints. This means that HTTP is literally the protocol to handle the transfer of hypertext.

What is a blockchain?

A blockchain is a decentralized digital ledger which is shared between every node on the network. For a device to become a node on a blockchain, a user must acquire that blockchain's token on the device so that it can be recognized as such and then be a part of the digital ledger. This ledger stores all of the data on each node across the system in such a way that it is all immutable; that is, it can never be modified or deleted. This process occurs simultaneously on all the machines on the network by having them solve a mathematical cryptographic puzzle which is heavy on the machine's computational power and can take a significant time to complete. This is the process which is called mining and a machine which is used for this is called a miner. Miners are typically in competition with each other to completely mine the transaction first as its only that miner who is rewarded with more tokens for completing the task. This is what has led to the cost of computer components costing so much as the demand for better hardware for miners has increased the price. One of the most popular of blockchains right now is the Bitcoin blockchain which functions as a cryptocurrency with a public digital ledger and was one of the very first to do this.

Why you should consider Using VPN to hide your Identity

Did you know that hackers, governments, snoopers or attackers can identify you through the IP address you use? By default, the IP address you use is public and interested parties or snoopers can intercept your information very easily. The good news is that you can always count on VPN to hide your identity on the Internet or access content that is geographically blocked in your location known as Internet Censorship.

What is an ISP?

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization which provides internet services to users. These organizations can be commercial, non-profit, private, or even community-owned. One of the key services they provide is the ability for their users to access the Internet. Laptops, computers, mobile devices, and any smart device that is capable of connecting to the Internet will require an ISP to connect to the Internet. To accomplish this, the ISP will provide the user with their own IP Address, which may be static or dynamic, to use as identification while surfing the internet. The user would then browse a website from their web browser by typing in its website name; let's say, This website name (domain name) would be translated into its own IP Address which uniquely identifies the website via DNS. This IP Address is then sent to the user's local router which is then forwarded to the user's ISP and then from there; to iplocation's ISP via ISP Switching centers like Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAE). Other services an ISP may provide include Internet transit, web hosting, Usenet service, and co-location services. Internet transit is a service provided to allow a smaller ISP to connect to the Internet and have their network traffic "transit" over a network. Web Hosting is provided to users who require a means to keep their website active and available but lack the equipment to do it themselves. Usenet was one of the first means of communication on the Internet that was designed back in the 70s and is no longer used. Finally, co-location is the service of providing server space and equipment for rental to hosting customers.